© Site and most content copyright to Peter Weatherill 2017 - 2019 Some content copyright to other authors as identified

Wax Pencils - Introduction

These are the non soluble pencils usually described as Wax Pencils but may well be manufactured with waxes and/or oils. I explain below the difference this can make, but all these pencils can be used together whether they are wax or oil and whether they come from different manufacturers To the right of this text is the navigation for topics concerned with these non soluble pencils. Many of the points made on this inital page are explained in greater depth elsewhere on the site and the further notes are linked.
1/ FIRSTLY - WHY USE COLOURED PENCILS FOR PREFERENCE ? IN WHAT WAY DO THEY DIFFER FROM OTHER ART MEDIA ? Coloured Pencils produce a line or mark of coloured pigment on the paper. That line is secured by the wax or oil ingredients that are included in the formula of the core. The core is strong enough to be sharpened to a point for a controlled result It is also soft enough to leave a layer of colour behind. Coloured Pencils ( often shortened to the initials ‘CP’ ) depend upon putting colour down in LAYERS We don’t BLEND pigment as we do with pastels. We add layers of transparent and semi transparent colour to develop the exact colour and tone we require. It can be a slow process, but it can produce photographic detail and is excellent for pictures involving fur and feather and where fine lines are required. IT IS EXCELLENT FOR A FINELY DETAILED IMAGE BUT IS A SLOW PROCESS. We can use other pencil media such as Watercolour and Pastel pencils in combination with wax pencils, to speed up the process, but CP is at it’s best on a smooth paper producing a detailed image. RESULTS can depend as much on your choice of paper as the coloured pencil brand chosen. Hot pressed watercolour paper of a weight of around 300gsm ( 140lb ) is good, as are smooth papers manufactured for print making. Print papers have less surface size ( the paper ingredient that stops watercolour spreading out on the surface ) and print papers have a good grip on the wax / oil / pigment enabling more layers of pigment to be applied for stronger colour. Rougher papers can also give stronger colour more quickly, but leave areas of white paper where the wax colour misses the valleys in the paper surface. IF YOU ARE USED TO PASTEL CP is a more secure painted surface than pastel with much finer detail but working a picture takes much longer. CP does not need fixing. IF YOU ARE USED TO WATERCOLOUR CP has much greater control and enables much greater detail, but CP is not at all good for skies and crashing waves - it needs a subject based on line. You CAN achieve a good result for skies etc. using watercolour pencils - but that is another section altogether ! THIS SECTION NOW GOES INTO FAR MORE DETAIL about how Coloured Pencils are used. The whole section has grown over the last 10 years and is in need of a total revision to make it read more logically, but the revision in April 2018 does simplify reading a little. If you are short of time I suggest that you skim down the headings and dip into the text where you have an interest A Coloured Pencil is a convenient medium for producing a work of art. Coloured Pencils can have a layer of wood to support and protect the core of pigment which can be quite soft, or they can be without any wood and merely have a paper or varnish cover (when it is commonly referred to by the French word ‘crayon’). It is a linear medium, and as such is at its best when showing lines. Subjects involving fur and hair are where it excels, so animal studies are natural territory. Some brilliant work is to be seen, though, from skilled artists showing subjects of all types Why use coloured pencil rather than any other medium? For the artist working in short spells in a home environment, pencil offers the ability to pick up the thread and continue from a previous work session with a minimum of trouble. There is no problem over waiting for something to dry, or conversely leaving your work to answer the phone and returning to find that part of the picture has dried when you needed it to stay wet. The medium is clean and immediately available. If you work from a box of pencils and start your picture with every pencil in the box facing the same way, you can return each worked pencil to the box the ‘wrong way round’ and then, once you have packed up for the day, your worked pencils are there, already identified, waiting to be picked out and up next time you open the lid. Fine detail is possible and near photographic realism…if that is what you want also The pigment goes down in a reliable way and there are very few surprises .................. Pictures do tend to take longer than other media though ! Is it a Drawing or a painting ? Drawing with a pencil or pen produces a line. A drawing is an image made up of lines and is a representation of the subject which may - or may not - be photo-realistic. Painting is the laying down of blocks or layers of colour to produce a more realistic interpretation than a drawing. Work in Coloured Pencil can be either, but most work that is exhibited fits readily into the category of ‘painting’. Does it matter what we call it ? I don’t think so, but I call most of my own work that finds it’s way into a frame, a ‘Painting’. Plaything or serious medium ? in a word, ‘Both’. As an introduction to the world of art, coloured pencils offer an unrivalled medium for children. If young people can be taught the modern techniques which have been developed over the last 15 or so years for applying colour from a pencil, , those children will be the artists of tomorrow. As for the adult artists of today, Coloured Pencil has every right to be taken seriously as a professional medium. The pencil has for far too long been referred to as ‘humble’. It is time for the Coloured Pencil to stand up, wave, and be noticed. If you want to see a selection of the latest international exhibited CP pictures, then take a look at the website for the CPSA in America where USA based exhibition images are shown in a gallery of images. In the UK, the two annual shows mounted by the UKCPS are pictured on the UKCPS website exhibition galleries. We now move on to the second area of interest 2/ Wax and Oil based pencils, what they are, and how they work NOTE : If you are intending to buy coloured pencils for the first time or are looking at adding a second range of pencils to your art bag, there is a topic in BRANDS that looks at how to go about testing pencils for yourself. This is titled ‘How to Compare’ COLOURED PENCILS ( OR COLORED PENCILS in the USA ) These are the Wax or Oil based pencils which do not dissolve in water. In the following topics in this section, we look at how colour is applied, different ways to shade colour and provide a good depth of colour, we talk about different pencil marks for different purposes and Wax ‘Bloom’ WAX type PENCIL TECHNIQUES - 1 THESE ARE NOT WATERCOLOUR PENCILS, sometimes known as ‘Aquarelles’ . The soluble variety are dealt with in a separate section of this site. those Non soluble pencils are often referred to as WAX PENCILS - though many brands are actually OIL BASED PENCILS. Referring to them as ‘Wax type’ saves having to explain every time what they are Oils & Waxes are used in the manufacture which give each brand a unique feel depending on the formula used by the maker. The exact content is not published ( for very good competitive reasons). It is, I believe, sufficient just to know whether a brand has a Hard or Soft feel, but in hot and humid climate conditions pictures created from softer varieties of wax based pencils may suffer from a grey powder coating called Wax bloom. If you want to know more about the technical side ( as much as I can discover ! ) Look at the topic on Wax Bloom If you are in the USA these non soluble pencils will simply be called ‘COLORED PENCILS’ (USA spelling) and most books in the States which refer to colored pencils will be talking about this type It is possible to use solvents with these pencils to dissolve the pigment binder, and also to use heat to blend, but we will come to that later. We will discuss the particular techniques for using watercolour pencils and pastel pencils in other sections of the site here. In this initial page we will quickly summarise the most important features of using this type of pencil The techniques for using coloured pencils rely on two main techniques, Layering and Burnishing When we layer colour, we build up successive thin layers on the paper and apply as little pressure as possible When we apply more pressure in laying down colour, and then apply a further ‘polishing’ layer using greater pressure to bed the colour down and blend the earlier pigment layers together, this is called burnishing. Layered colour will produce lighter colour tones and delicate shading - think of a peach fruit skin Burnished colour will produce stronger colour with a more polished blended finish - think plum fruit skin LAYERING The trick in getting a satisfactory finish with coloured pencils is to use a very light touch and build up a number of layers of colour on the paper. The colour from wax type pencils is frequently transparent and at the least will be semi transparent, so successive layers of thin colour will build up and each layer will act as a filter on the colours beneath. You need to remember that the first layer that hits the paper is the most important. I don’t think we can be sure of an accurate figure, but I often say 70% of the finish colour is determined by the first colour to hit the paper. This first coat will be a foundation layer and will set the general overall colour. If you apply a yellowish green to the dry fresh paper surface, that will be the majority shareholder in the company, all other layers placed on top will merely adjust that green, so that adding yellow will make it a more yellowish green and adding blue will make it a more blueish green. However, if we reverse the order and use a blue as our foundation, and we lay down the blue colour and then put a yellowish green over the top ………. we will get a different result as the first (blue) layer will be the majority of the resulting colour. Our resulting colour will be more blue. It follows that you don’t need to have every colour in your box that you will require for the painting. Where you would mix pigment to get the right shade with watercolour, you will build layers of colours to reach the correct shade with Coloured Pencils. See Application of colour - for fuller details The example shown here shows how the addition of various layers of colour changes the appearance of the worked colour
Faber-Castell Polychromos pencils On Daler Rowney 300gsm hot pressed paper Using two layers of colour at each level. Total 16 layers Even adding two layers of sepia at the end does not totally kill the green - it merely makes it a very dark green
BURNISHING As I noted at the top of this page, the other technique we need to know about is ‘burnishing’ This is a method of pressure blending the colours on the paper by applying a further series of layers of a lighter colour. In effect we are pressing the pigment and wax layers together and producing a smooth polished effect. This will rely, first of all, on the amount of pigment already on the paper. Burnishing works best if there is a good amount of earlier colour to work with. There is a whole Topic on ‘Pencil Skills’ which looks at Burnishing, Burnishers and Blenders, but for the purpose of providing a simple illustration in this introduction, I show below four images giving the stages of 1/ the initial lightly layered colour 2/ the first additions of stronger colour, 3/ the burnished result after a lighter colour has been laid down on top under pressure and 4/ the addition of further layers of deeper colour over the earlier burnish. For the illustration I have used cartridge paper ( ideal for wax type pencils used entirely dry ) and a selection of colours from Caran d’Ache Luminance. I have used a softer pencil for this to make to result more obvious, but burnishing can be used with most coloured pencil types. Soft wax works best for burnishing so it is best to look at pencils from Prismacolor Premier . Derwent Coloursoft, or Caran d’Ache Luminance - as all three are wax based and among the softest pencils.
This short explanation of burnishing Is repeated with larger illustrations In the topic on Burnishing and Burnishers In the ‘Pencil Skills’ section and there are further examples of this technique in the topic ‘Results on different papers’ which appears later in this section
FINALLY, in this section are some notes about the Coloured Pencil Societies and competitions and some more technical stuff about wax and oil ingredients The Coloured Pencil Societies ( UKCPS in the UK, and CPSA in USA ) hold exhibitions each year for ‘Pure Coloured Pencil’ works, and specify quite strict conditions for the exact types of media that can be used. This is not out of a wish to be ‘difficult’ but merely as an effort to push the boundaries on what can be achieved with a special medium. Both Societies also hold other exhibitions where mixed media pictures - which include Coloured Pencil as a majority ingredient - can be shown What is a PURE coloured pencil? Personal use is not the same as competition entry Pure Coloured Pencil always used to be considered by the Societies to be any wax or oil based Pencil, soluble or not, but since 2011 the UKCPS in the UK have no longer accepted watercolour pencils (where water is used) as being the same as wax based crayons, (nor do the Societies accept pastel pencils or coloured graphite as ‘Pure Coloured Pencil). For competitive exhibition, these pencils may be used on a purchased surface, so surfaces pre-coloured by the artist with other media such as traditional watercolour, acrylic paint or ink are excluded, as are Coloured Pencils worked over collage etc. More precise details of the entry conditions to these International Pencil Societies exhibitions are available from the Society Exhibition Directors. There is debate over how a ‘purchased surface’ is defined and surfaces prepared with a layer of gesso or primer in a single colour can be permitted as a base. This is so in the UK but I have no information about the USA Society ruling. Since 2012, The UKCPS has stated that all other pencil media ( including watercolour pencil worked with water ) may be used in pictures exhibited in Society Exhibitions - provided they are entered in the Mixed Media section. From 2013 all pencil media will be accepted by the UKCPS provided at least 50% of the media is ‘Pure Coloured Pencil’. For the traditionalists, there is still an additional section of awards for pure CP alone. Why are we concerned about these rules? We are concerned about definitions and entry terms because the two societies uphold the banner for Coloured Pencil as a Fine Art Medium, and promote the use of pencils. There are a number of other graphic based societies, but they all take a wider view and do not specialise in Coloured Pencil. By the dedicated Societies laying down strict rules, the development of Coloured Pencil techniques is encouraged. If you are entering a competitive exhibition with awards, you will wish to know that everyone is playing by the same rules. BUT NOTE CAREFULLY ……….These rules apply ONLY to competitive exhibition entry The fact that the two Societies apply strict control on what is allowed for Pure Coloured Pencil Exhibition does not in any way hold back developments in the handling and use of Coloured Pencil - either alone or with other media. There are some very interesting ideas circulating and you should not be discouraged from trying out new ideas and techniques with other media. Have a look at Facebook and the many groups encouraging artists to show their pencil work, You may need to apply to join a group to take part in discussions and show your work, and many will provide supporting advice for beginners. Why are some brands of pencil so different from other brands and why are the colours not the same in other brands ? Making pencils is more complex than making watercolour or acrylic paint ( though that might be something to set up a debate on with representatives of the different manufacturers ! ). Pencils need to be hard enough to sharpen, soft enough to transfer colour to the paper, They need to have pigment that is long lasting on the paper and as lightfast as possible, have non poisonous pigments that are bright and strong, and be manufactured in a premium wood surround that sharpens evenly and protects the pigment core from shocks when you drop the pencil on the floor. The combination of all these variables then meets the accountants, who say the product must be made at a low enough cost to sell at a good enough profit to keep the shareholders happy. And you thought juggling was difficult ! I was talking to Barbara Murray of Derwent on the subject of pigments and the various chemical compounds used in pencils, and asked why manufacturers do not use only lightfast ingredients Barbara told me: It is not so simple! there are some very light fast pigments on the Market, some of the quinacridones are excellent; manganese is superb, although not terribly bright. If we were making acrylic paint, then those pigments would retain their lightfastness, no bother, as the paint is just a clear acrylic resin with a few binders etc and it can be loaded with high percentages of pigment. However, pencils are very different! Yes, we use binders and instead of the resin we use clay or a similar material. But we are limited in the amount of pigment we can add to those materials. Firstly, we have to make a product that will be strong and hard enough to extrude into a pencil core. So we have to use either chemical hardeners or less pigment! If we loaded the cores full of pigment, then the cores would simply crumble during extrusion. Then there is the problem of getting the pencil to write. With paint, the pigment is held in a wet state in its binder, which then dries after use. In pencils, we have to dry the binders before use, as it's a dry medium. Pigments in their dry state can often be very, very hard in texture. Remember Derwent Signature pencils? the pigment in those were of the highest lightfastness you can get, but in order to retain the high ratings, we had to load too much in the cores and the texture was far too hard! An additional problem with pencils, as opposed to paint, is that we have to simulate the 'wet state' that paint is in so that the pencils will write. That means that we have to add waxes or oils to the mix to transfer the colour on to the paper. Unfortunately, most of the waxes and/or oils that exist - even the more natural ones - have a detrimental effect on lightfastness. and that is especially true of their effect on bright pinks, violets and reds… …. …. So each manufacturer tries to find a balance - and a niche in the market which they can fill with a reliable, efficient and profitable product. Enter the Coloured Pencil buyer - He or she will have their own agenda. They may be botanical artists and want colour with a fine sharp point that enables great precision. They may be looking for transparent colours, or very soft pencils that lay down lots of colour quickly. They may regard lightfastness as a priority and be prepared to pay for the privilege - or be looking for the lowest cost pencils they can find ………… every artist has different needs. I think you may be getting the point !
PENCIL SHARPENERS First of all you need to keep your pencil sharp (unless you are doing delicate background shading and wish to avoid all lines at all costs). I use a power sharpener which keeps the point at a good standard of accuracy. It might seem at first sight that an electric sharpener would be expensive on pencils, but in fact it is no more wasteful than any other sharpening system. Once the point is sharpened to the angle set by the machine, re-sharpening takes very little material off the pencil each time. If you allow your point to get blunt, you may well find that the lines you draw become less accurate. It is also more difficult to apply the exact pressure on the point that you need. A good tip is keep rotating the pencil as you work so that you keep the fine point refreshed. If you are buying a sharpener, you have a basic choice between a low cost one with a blade that removes a long thin strip of wood and pigment from the pencil, or a more expensive model which uses a spiral cutter which takes off very fine shavings. The bladed one is cheap and works very well whilst the blade is fresh and sharp. Once the blade becomes blunt, you have to go out and buy another sharpener - replace the blade - or put up with the sharpener breaking off the point as it stresses the pencil. The spiral cutter sharpener pulls the material off the pencil in the direction the pencil was made, so there is no stress. You can find manual spiral cutters ( with a handle) on the Internet for under £10 and sometimes ( if you call on the right week ) in places like Lidl or Aldi supermarkets for around £5 A top quality electric mains sharpener ( Jakar ) will cost up to £30 - and some of the more exotic ones around £100 if you really try to spend money, but there is no need to spend much more than £25. I have heard good reports of a number of brands, and bad reports of others. There seems to be no pattern in identifying the poor ones so I will not name names as I have people who find one brand poor and others who say that the same brand is excellent. It may be down to poor manufacturing standards, but if you do spend good money on a sharpener that doesn’t work, complain to the retailer/manufacturer. If it is a reputable brand, they will usually replace it. There is a wide variety of powered sharpeners about but I would suggest steering clear of battery models unless you have shares in Duracell. Even using re-chargeable batteries tends to have problems and the small battery motors have a short working life as well There is a more detailed look at sharpeners and sharpening pencils in the Pencil Skills section PRESSURE on the POINT For most coloured pencil work, we will need to apply colour with a light touch to build up the layers Try out your ability to apply different pressure on the pencil point by doing a test strip. If you consider the first of - say - 10 levels is ‘just resting the pencil on the paper’ and moving it with no actual hand pressure and making virtually no mark, is level 1 ........ and applying maximum pressure on the point up to the level where the point would break if any more was applied, is 10, then it should be possible for you to grade the 8 stages in between. I would suggest that you should hardly ever be in the top half of that range - certainly not until the very end of the picture when the surface is fully polished and is taking virtually no more pigment
Page revised and reset April 2018